Effect of the seed weight on the growth of young avocado rootstock seedlings





Dickson quality index, Persea americana, vigor


The cultivation of avocado cv. Hass (Persea americana Miller) in Colombia has grown in recent years. Among the country's challenges is to increase the orchards' productivity by guaranteeing grafts plants the best agronomic, genetic, and phytosanitary parameters. This work aims to evaluate for 90 days (nursery phase) the growth and development of avocado rootstocks originated from seeds with different weight ranges. A completely randomized experimental design was carried out, with treatments consisting in four Creole avocado seed weights (40-60 g, 60-80 g, 80-100 g, and over 100 g). In general, seeds greater than 80 g had the best germination percentage (over 70 %), a greater plant height, and a greater stem diameter in each of the evaluated periods. The seeds greater than 100 g presented the emergence of multiple stems at 30 days after transplanting; this fact was related to the size and reserves of the seed. The highest accumulated dry matter in stems, leaves, and total plant (without seeds) (cotyledons) were present in treatments with seeds above 80 g. These plants showed higher germination, significant more accumulation of biomass and greater vigor, which could shorten the nursery time while guaranteeing the quality of the material influenced by improved growth and seedling survival.


Download data is not yet available.


Adjei, P.Y., B.K. Banful and I.A. Idun. 2011. Seed size and seed cut-length effects on germination behavior and seedling growth of avocado (Persea americana Merr.). International Journal of Agricultural Research 6(3): 299-305.

Alberti, M.F., B.D. Brogio, S.R. Silva, T. Cantuarias-Avilés and C. Fassio. 2018. Avances en la propagación del aguacate. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura. 40(6): e-782.

Andrade, S.J., R.S. Alexandre, E.R. Schmildt, F.L. Partelli, M.A.G. Ferrão and A.L. Mauri. 2013. Comparison between grafting and cutting as vegetative propagation methods for conilon coffee plants. Acta Scientiarum 35(4): 461-469.

Ben-Ya'acov, A. and E. Michelson. 1995. Avocado rootstocks. In: J. Janick (ed.) Horticultural Reviews 17: 429. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY. pp. 381-429.

Bernal, E.J.A. and D.C.A. Díaz. 2020. Generalidades del cultivo. In: Bernal. J.A.E. (ed.). Actualización tecnológica y buenas prácticas agrícolas (BPA) en el cultivo de aguacate. Agrosavia, Mosquera. pp. 77-330. https://n9.cl/n1a4y (retrieved March 18, 2021).

Bernal, J., C. Díaz, C. Osorio, A. Tamayo, W. Osorio, O. Cordoba, et al. 2014. Manejo del cultivo. Manual técnico actualizaciones tecnológica y buenas prácticas agrícola (BPA) en el aguacate. Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria – AGROSAVIA. Bogotá, 470 p. https://n9.cl/0l998 (retrieved March 18, 2021).

Binotto, A.F., A.D.C. Lúcio and S.J. Lopes. 2010. Correlations between growth variables and the Dickson quality index in forest seedlings. Cerne 16(4): 457-464.

Castro, M., R. Cautin, C. Fassio and N. Darrouy. 2003. Introduction, Selection and Propagation Program for Avocado Rootstocks and Cultivars (Abstracts. A–35). In: World Avocado Congress V. Granada-Málaga, Spain. pp. 120-121.

Chanderbali, A.S., D.E. Soltis, P.S. Soltis and B.N. Wolstenholme. 2013. Taxonomy and Botany. In: Schaffer, B., B.N. Wolstenholme and A.W. Whiley (eds.) The avocado: botany, production and uses. CAB International, London. 32 p.

Córdula, E., M.P. Morim and M. Alves. 2014. Morfologia de frutos e sementes de Fabaceae ocorrentes em uma área prioritária para a conservação da Caatinga em Pernambuco, Brasil. Rodriguésia 65(2): 505-516.

de Morais O.I.V., R.S. Costa, F.V. Môro, A.B.G. Martins and R.R.S. Da Silva. 2010. Caracterização morfológica do fruto, da semente e desenvolvimento pós-seminal do abacateiro. Comunicata Scientiae 1(1): 69-69.

Di Benedetto, A. and J. Tognetti. 2016. Técnicas de análisis de crecimiento de plantas: su aplicación a cultivos intensivos. RIA. Revista de Investigaciones Agropecuarias 42(3): 258-282.

Estay, C., R. Cautín, A. Neaman and M. Castro. 2016. Clonal propagation of the avocado: effects of the rooting step on graft union formation and development. International Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 43(2): 233-241.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2020. FAOSTAT Online Database. http://www.faostat.fao.org/. Retrieved February 20, 2021.

Gálvez-Cendegui, L., P. Peñaloza, E. Oyanedel and M. Castro. 2016. Caracterización del tamaño de semilla nodriza de aguacate Esther y el desarrollo de sus plántulas. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 39(1): 79-85.

Garbanzo, S.M. and A.A. Coto. 2017. Manual para el establecimiento y manejo de un vivero de aguacate (Persea americana. Mill) (No. F01/10905). Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, San José (Costa Rica). http://www.mag.go.cr/bibliotecavirtual/F01-10905.pdf.

Gonçalves, J.F.D.C., E.G.D.F. Melo, M.J. Ferreira, C.E.M.D. Silva and I.B. Gomes. 2013. Crescimento, partição de biomassa e fotossíntese em plantas jovens de Genipa spruceana submetidas ao alagamento. Cerne 19(2): 193-200.

Hunt, R. 2003. Growth analysis, individual plants. In: Thomas B., D.J. Murphy and D. Murray (eds.). Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Science. Academic Press, London. pp. 588-596.

ICA (Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario). 2012. Manejo fitosanitario del cultivo del aguacate Hass (Persea americana Mill) - Medidas para la temporada invernal. Bogotá, Colombia. 75 p. https://n9.cl/kaya6 (retrieved April 10, 2021).

Kuan-Hung, L.I.N., W.U. Chun-Wei and Y.S. Chang. 2019. Applying Dickson quality index, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf area index for assessing plant quality of Pentas lanceolata. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca 47(1): 169-176.

Lestari, R., L.A. Sukamto, P. Aprilianti, S. Wahyuni and W.U. Putri. 2016. Selection of Avocado Plants Based on Fruit Characters, Fat content, and Continual Harvest along the year in West Java-Indonesia. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology 6(1): 77-83.

Mandemaker, A.J. 2008. Photosynthesis of avocado. New Zealand Avocado Growers' Association Annual Research Report 7:1-9.

Maradiaga, R. 2017. Manual técnico para el manejo de viveros certificados de aguacate (No. IICA F01). Programa Regional de Investigación e Innovación por Cadenas de Valor Agrícola Secretaría de Agricultura y Ganadería (Honduras). Dirección de Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura.

MADR (Ministerio de Agricultura y Desarrollo Rural). 2019. Cadena de Aguacate. Indicadores e Instrumentos. Bogotá, Colombia. 34 p. https://n9.cl/anod (retrieved September 23, 2021).

Ndoro, L.L. 2018. Effect of Seed Size on Germination and Seedling Performance on Grafted Avocado. African Journal of Education, Science and Technology 4(4): 95-100.

Paine, C.T., T.R. Marthews, D.R. Vogt, D. Purves, M. Rees, A. Hector and L.A. Turnbull. 2012. How to fit nonlinear plant growth models and calculate growth rates: an update for ecologists. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3(2): 245-256.

Paixão, M.V.S., J.C. Lopes, E.R. Schmildt, R.S. Alexandre and C.M. Meneghelli. 2016. Avocado seedlings multiple stems production. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 38(2): e-221.

Sánchez, J.A.E. 2013. Los Suelos de Colombia. In: Burbano, H.O. and F.M. Silva (eds.). Ciencia del suelo principios básicos. Offset Grá. Bogotá. 610 p.

Scalon, S.P., T.S. Jeromin, R.M. Mussury and D.M. Dresch. 2014. Photosynthetic metabolism and quality of Eugenia pyriformis Cambess. seedlings on substrate function and water levels. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 324: 103-113.

Schaffer, B., B.N. Wolstenholme and A.W. Whiley. 2013. Introduction. In: Schaffer, B., B.N. Wolstenholme and A.W. Whiley (eds.). The avocado: botany, production and use. CAB International, London, UK. 4 p.

Souza, J.A.C., G.C. Prates, J.T. Ferreira, G.D.M.D. Castro and L.C.C. Salomão. 2020. Avocado: Is it possible to produce two seedlings with one seed? Revista Ceres 67: 152-155.

Tefay, S. Z., I. Bertling, J.P. Bower and C. Lovatt. 2012. The quest for the function of 'Hass’ avocado carbohydrates: clues from fruit and seed development as well as seed germination. Australian Journal of Botany 60(1): 79-86.

Tripathi, P.C. and G. Karunakaran. 2019. Standardization of time and method of propagation in avocado. Journal of Applied Horticulture 21(1): 67-69.

Warschefsky, E.J., L.L. Klein, M.H. Frank, D.H. Chitwood, J.P. Londo, E.J. von Wettberg and A.J. Miller. 2016. Rootstocks: diversity, domestication, and impacts on shoot phenotypes. Trends in Plant Science 21(5): 418-437.

Whiley, A. and G. Anderson. 2002. Study tour of South Africa, New Zealand, the UK and the USA (also incorporating Chile). Horticulture Australia, Sydney, Australia. 56 p. https://n9.cl/5n84i (retrieved April 10, 2021).

Wightman, K.E. 1999. Good tree nursery practices: practical guidelines for community nurseries. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya. 94 p. https://n9.cl/dyqn2 (retrieved April 10, 2021).



How to Cite

Mejía-Jaramillo, L., Barrera-Sánchez, C., & Córdoba-Gaona, O. (2022). Effect of the seed weight on the growth of young avocado rootstock seedlings. Bioagro, 34(2), 183-194. https://doi.org/10.51372/bioagro342.8